Preliminary Section

1.      Acknowledgement

Acknowledgement is the segment in the report where the researcher gives gratitude to all concerned individuals, groups and organizations who have assisted in preparing the project work. Researcher can write acknowledgement in multiple style and can use ‘I’ or ‘We’ such as:

I would like to provide sincere gratitude to Name of School /College/Institution/University for providing such a golden opportunity to prepare the report that will be fruitful for our entire career development. Further, I am thankful to Mr. /Mrs. /Miss. Name of Supervisor for providing immeasurable guidance; without his/her guidance, I would not have been able to complete the report with dexterity.

2.      Abbreviation

In this part, the researcher should indicate all the full form of applied short forms in the report. Such as:

  • ROE: Return on Equity
  • AUR: Asset Utilization Ratio
  • NRB: Nepal Rastra Bank

Researcher must list out all the abbreviations used in the report in this segment.

3.      Table of Contents

Microsoft word provides inbuilt Table of Contents. (See Microsoft Word Tutorial)

4.      List of Tables

Microsoft word provides inbuilt List of Tables. (See Microsoft Word Tutorial)

5.      List of Figures

Microsoft word provides inbuilt List of Tables. (See Microsoft Word Tutorial)

6.      Executive Summary

Executive Summary is the entire summary of the report. An executive summary is a greatly condensed version of a longer piece of writing that highlights the major points covered, and concisely describes the content and scope of the writing. Executive summary is the fundamental part of the report and every viewer first goes through the executive summary to further proceed to the entire report. If he/she find executive summary interesting, then he/she goes through entire report. Thus, executive summary must be attractive, grammatical error free, concise, and marked with veracity.

Executive summary must start with an objective of the study followed by methodology, findings and recommendation.

Executive Summary: Starting with Objective (Using Present Tense)

  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of … on…
  • The goals of this study are to determine …
  • The primary purpose of this study is to determine …
  • This study is specifically concerned with the effect of … on …

Executive Summary: Methodology:

  • This study was conducted in Nepal Bank Limited
  • The empirical part of this study was conducted in May 2000.
  • Data for this study/research were collected/gathered/obtained from/by/through/with the help of/among …

Executive Summary: Result or Findings:

  • These results suggest that …
  • The results show that/reveal …
  • It was concluded that …

Points to Remember in Writing Executive Summary

  • Executive Summary is only a summary of the report, so adding new information is not entertained.
  • Executive Summary is generally started by stating the objective of the study, followed by research methodology, variables used in report, data analysis, findings, and recommendations.
  • Objective of study, Research Methodology, Result or Findings and Recommendations are the cornerstone of the executive summary.
  • There should be logical connection between the information included.
  • Executive summary should be written in passive voice.
  • Executive Summary should not be more than 400 words or One Page (Microsoft Word; Font: Times New Roman; Font Size: 12)

Chapter I: Introduction

Introduction part is the beginning stage of the report. This stage includes background of study or context information, purpose or objective of study, significance of study, limitation of study, and research methods used for data collection and analysis.

1.1.      Context Information

Context Information or Background of Study is the preliminary section of the research. This section gives highlight to the major concern of the topic. In this section, researcher should discuss about the background of the research study along with slight introduction to research topic, objective and significance.

1.2.      Purpose of the Study

Purpose of the study is the most critical section of the research. The purpose of the study gives direction to the research and the entire research is guided by the purpose or objective of study. The purpose of the study is determined well if the research issue is defined well.

Points to Remember

  • Purpose of the Study should be in point
  • There should not be more than five points (3 points are sufficient)
  • Use verbs such as: Demonstrate, illustrate, examine, explore, consider, relate to, refer to, draw on, explain, investigate, determine
  • Do not use: know, get information, look at, look into, analyze. These terms are vague and reduces the gravity the research objective.

1.3.      Significance of the Study

In this section, researcher must provide why his or her study is relevant, helpful, and fruitful. He or she must defend his or her research as fruitful, and must signify that the research gap have been successfully bridged. What other researchers have studied and what you have studied and what’s the difference is the matter of concern.

1.4.      Limitation of the Study

Limitation of Study is the important segment in the research in which researcher signifies the major shortcomings of the report. Five to Seven limitations are enough for average sized report, however, limitation of study depends upon the type of research report.

1.5.      Literature Survey

Literature Survey is the most important part of the research. Every research is based on previous literatures. “A researcher only adds a brick”, which means that one must find the research gap (what is lacking in previously conducted researches) and try to fulfil that gap. Literature Survey, which is also called Literature Review, is the back up for the research presently being conducted.

A literature survey is a search and evaluation of the available literature in a given subject or chosen topic area. It is the review of some related literature on the specific topic or the review of previous studies and conceptual framework for the related studies. It helps to get better insights of the subject matter under study giving us a good vision for conducting the study. It helps in critical analysis of the information gathered by identifying gaps in the current knowledge and formulating the areas for further research and reviewing of controversy. It covers the wide range of studies conducted within and outside the nation.

Why Literature Review?

  • To find research gap (what is lacking in other research conducted earlier on your topic)
  • To avoid dead ends
  • To get idea for further research and the way to move ahead

Point to Remember

  • Literature Review should be in APA format (for management students). (See APA reference (6th Edition))
  • Literature Review should be in chronological order (either by date or by importance or gravity).
  • Literature review should

1.6.      Research Methods used for Data Collection and Analysis

Research Methods defines how the research has been conducted. The research design applied in conducting the research (Qualitative, Quantitative, Descriptive, Analytical, and Exploratory). Popluation and Sample must be clearly defined. The sample size defines the accuracy and generalizability of the finding. The source of data must be disclosed. Researcher must clearly mention primary sources or secondary sources or both (whichever used in preparing the report). Lastly, the data processing technique includes various mathematical, statistical, financial and computing tools. Simple statistical tools includes descriptive statistics; financial tools includes financial ratio analysis; computing tools includes Microsoft Excel, SPSS and so on.

1.6.1.   Research Design (Qualitative, Quantitative, Descriptive, Analytical, and Exploratory)

1.6.2.   Population and Sample

1.6.3.   Sources of Data (Primary and Secondary Data)

1.6.4.   Data Processing Technique (Statistical, financial, and computing tools)

Chapter II: Data Presentation and Analysis

The data analysis and presentation is the crux of any research work. It plays a key role in data quality assessment helping to interpret the data more accurately and reaching to a decision. It helps in structuring the findings, acquiring meaningful insights from the dataset and basing critical decisions from the findings. Different types of statistical tools such as mean, correlation, standard deviation, coefficient of variation etc. and financial ratios such as return on assets, return on equity, return on loan and advances etc. are used for analysis.

2.1.      Respondent/Situation/Organization Profile

In this section, the researcher must give introduction of the organization(s) being studied. The organization may be a bank(s), a manufacturing company(ies), or any entity(ies) that is being studied. If primary data is used, then respondent profile is compulsory. The respondent profile may include age, gender, occupation, residence and other information about the respondent.

2.2.      Data Presentation

In this section, the data collected are presented in tabular and/or diagrammatic form. Pie chart, bar diagram, and various other diagram can be used for data presentation. Data presentation is the core part of any report. So, the data must be presented with ingenuity.

Points to Remember

  • It’s better to use tables, and graphs rather than words
  • Tables and Graph in the report must be of same size.
  • The row height of table should be 0.22 to 0.28 (depending on your choice).
  • The size of graphs must be (Height: 3 inch and Width: 5.95)
  • (See Microsoft Word Tutorial)

2.3.      Data Analysis

Data analysis is the important part of any research. In this section, the data presented in previous section is analyzed with the application of various statistical, financial and computing tools. The researcher in this section gets holds of nature of data, pattern of data and so on. Simple and Advance Statistical tools can be used to analyze and interpret the data.

Points to Remember

  • In this section, researcher exhibits his knowledge of various statistical, and financial tools
  • The data analysis is based on data presentation
  • Researcher can use computing tools such as Microsoft Excel, SPSS and various tools depending upon the demand of research.
  • Data analysis should be precise and should be appropriate to draw a valid conclusion.

2.4.      Findings and Discussion

2.4.1.   Findings

In this section, the researcher must present what he or she realized or obtained. What result is obtained is presented in this section in bullet.

Points to Remember

  • Findings must be strictly based on data analysis.
  • Findings must be written in bullets.
  • Findings must be based on factual evidences and must show concrete relationship.
  • Findings must be clear, concise, and accurate without any ambiguity.
2.4.2.   Discussion

Discussion section is supportive to finding. In this section, researcher discusses what he result be obtained and what is or are the discrepancy (ies) between his or her findings and the findings of other researchers. This section is the section of backing up your argument with evidence you extracted. Further, the researcher advice for further research for the purpose of making the finding more accurate and unambiguous.

Chapter III: Conclusion and Action Implication

3.1.Conclusion

Conclusion section is the last section of the report. This section is very crucial and most of the viewers of the report focuses on executive summary, findings, and conclusion. So, researcher must conclude his or her research precisely being based on his or her research purpose or objective.

Points to Remember

  • Conclusion is the most important segment of the report; so the language should be as simple as possible.
  • Conclusion of the report should be consistent with the research objective.
  • Length of conclusion depend upon the number of objectives; however, one paragraph is adequate for conclusion

3.2. Action Implications

Action implication is simply recommendation or indirect suggestion. In this section, the researcher should make some relevant suggestion to the stakeholders or concerned parties based on the findings of the report.

Points to Remember

  • Action implication should be strictly based on findings and discussion.
  • Recommendation provided by the researcher should be relevant.
  • Any improper recommendation or non-performable action implication can degrade the quality of entire report.

Appendices

Any supplementary material that has been used in preparing the report is presented in this section. It can include: Questionnaire, Financial Statement of Sampled Bank or any Organization, and others.

Glossary (Optional)

In this section, researcher mentions the definition of terms used the report that may not familiar to general viewer. This section is optional.

References

References is the most important section and without proper references, the report is invalid or is subject to plagiarism. In this section, the researcher list out the sources of idea or information, which may be a book, magazine, journal article, website, company’s financial statement and so on), that has been used for preparing the report. Reference can be in different format such as APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, and so on. However, in management studies, APA is popular.


1. Reference Links

2. Reference Research Papers

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